IAS 12: Income Tax
Examples of Temporary Difference – Deductible Temporary Differences
The following are examples of deductible temporary differences that result in deferred tax assets:
(a) retirement benefit costs may be deducted in determining accounting profit as service is provided by the employee, but deducted in determining taxable profit either when contributions are paid to a fund by the entity or when retirement benefits are paid by the entity. A temporary difference exists between the carrying amount of the liability and its tax base; the tax base of the liability is usually nil. Such a deductible temporary difference results in a deferred tax asset as economic benefits will flow to the entity in the form of a deduction from taxable profits when contributions or retirement benefits are paid;
(b) preliminary expenses are recognised as an expense in determining accounting profit in the period in which they are incurred but may not be permitted as a deduction in determining taxable profit (tax loss) until a later period(s). The difference between the tax base of the preliminary expenses, being the amount permitted as a deduction in future periods under taxation laws, and the carrying amount of nil is a deductible temporary difference that results in a deferred tax asset;
(c) with limited exceptions, an entity recognises the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination at their fair values at the acquisition date. When a liability assumed is recognised at the acquisition date but the related costs are not deducted in determining taxable profits until a later period, a deductible temporary difference arises which results in a deferred tax asset. A deferred tax asset also arises when the fair value of an identifiable asset acquired is less than its tax base. In both cases, the resulting deferred tax asset affects goodwill; and
(d) certain assets may be carried at fair value, or may be revalued, without an equivalent adjustment being made for tax purposes. A deductible temporary difference arises if the tax base of the asset exceeds its carrying amount.
An entity recognises a liability of Rs. 100 for gratuity and leave encashment expenses by creating a provision for gratuity and leave encashment. For tax purposes, any amount with regard to gratuity and leave encashment will not be deductible until the entity pays the same. The tax rate is 25%.
The tax base of the liability is nil (carrying amount of Rs. 100, less the amount that will be deductible for tax purposes in respect of that liability in future periods). In settling the liability for its carrying amount, the entity will reduce its future taxable profit by an amount of Rs. 100 and, consequently, reduce its future tax payments by Rs. 25 (Rs. 100 at 25%). The difference between the carrying amount of Rs. 100 and the tax base of nil is a deductible temporary difference of Rs. 100. Therefore, the entity recognises a deferred tax asset of Rs. 25 (Rs. 100 at 25%), provided that it is probable that the entity will earn sufficient taxable profit in future periods to benefit from a reduction in tax payments.
When there are insufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity, the deferred tax asset is recognised to the extent that:
(a) it is probable that the entity will have sufficient taxable profit relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity in the same period as the reversal of the deductible temporary difference (or in the periods into which a tax loss arising from the deferred tax asset can be carried back or forward). In evaluating whether it will have sufficient taxable profit in future periods, an entity ignores taxable amounts arising from deductible temporary differences that are expected to originate in future periods, because the deferred tax asset arising from these deductible temporary differences will itself require future taxable profit in order to be utilised; or
(b) tax planning opportunities are available to the entity that will create taxable profit in appropriate periods